• Lessons Learned from Years with

    Comments Off on Lessons Learned from Years with
    June 26, 2020 /  Auto & Motor

    Things to Consider When Choosing an Air Duct Cleaning Service

    Having clean and breathable air is very important. And it because of this that you should ensure that the air ducts that you have in your house are clean. If your air ducts are dirty and dusty or clogged up, people in that house will experience a lot of respiratory and other breathing problems. But you can be able to avoid all of those problems by making sure that the air ducts are clean. Obviously, you can not be able to clean the air ducts by yourself. For this, you will need to hire an air duct cleaning service. He air duct cleaning service has technicians and other staff that have all the necessary equipment and knowledge that s required to do proper cleaning of air ducts. The tips that are outlined below, can help you hire a good air duct cleaning service.

    To start with you should ask the people around you or the people that are your neighbors to tell you of any air duct cleaning services that they have either hired in the past or just know. This is using word of mouth to get an air duct cleaning service. It is one of the most effective and fastest ways that one can use to hire a good air duct cleaning service. There are many people that annually or even bi-annually hire an air duct cleaning service to come and clean their air ducts. And die to this, you will see that either a lot of your neighbors or other people close to you will give you recommendations to air duct cleaning services. Avoid rushing to the first air duct cleaning service that you get referred to. What you should do is to wait until you get enough referrals before you start evaluating them.

    The next thing to do is to ask for references from the air duct cleaning service. The references that will be given to you will help you get in contact with some of the former clients of the air duct cleaning service. From their former clients, you can learn about the experience that you should expect to have when you hire the air duct cleaning service. An ideal air duct cleaning service will not hesitate to give you references. It is a red flag when an air duct cleaning service will refuse r downplay the importance of giving you references.

    The last thing that you can do is to find out if the air duct cleaning service operates in your area. Not all air duct cleaning services are able to offer their services all over the world. Most of them will just offer other services switching the city or town that they are located. The number of years that the air duct cleaning service has been in business is also a very important factor that you can consider. The more experienced the air duct cleaning service the better chance you have when it comes to getting quality services.

    What Has Changed Recently With ?

    5 Takeaways That I Learned About

  • Why Aren’t As Bad As You Think

    Comments Off on Why Aren’t As Bad As You Think
    June 26, 2020 /  Foods & Culinary

    Key Benefits of Using UV Light that Kills Mold

    Mold growth is a problem millions of people struggle with yearly in their homes and offices, especially those situated in the hot and humid areas. Leaving mold uncontrolled means they can spread everywhere within your home, office, or industry, and the health repercussions are well known. This is why you should always take the necessary mold remediation steps immediately you see signs of their growth o infestation on your property. To ensure your home or office is completely free of mold infestation, the right tools are needed for remediation, and this is where UV light comes in. The ultraviolet light that kills mold is being widely used in the remediation because of the following unique benefits.

    UV light that kills mold is becoming popular because it disinfects everywhere it touches in the office or house. When you bring UV light into your house or office, you are bringing in the power of sunlight indoors which is known to kill mold, bacteria, and fungus among other things. If there are areas of your house or office where the germ-killing power of sunlight is not reaching, chances are you will witness mold growth in those areas. But when you bring in UV light, it will kill mold on every surface it touches including the ones suspended in air, making it one of the most effective ways of ridding your house of mold.

    Another advantage of using UV light that kills mold to control infestation is that you won’t have to use harmful chemicals. The use of chemicals like chlorine on mold remediation is a common practice, however, due to their effects on the user and the surfaces where they are being applied, it is not a recommended method. UV light that kills mold can give you the results you want without these effects. When you use this UV light for the right duration, it can kill mold and prevent its ability to reproduce.

    UV light that kills mold protects the remediation process. The moment you begin the remediation process, you run the risk of disturbing the mold spores, sending them into the air. Since the mold spores cannot be seen, they increase the potential health risk you face, plus they can get to the surrounding areas through the ventilation systems in your home or office. However, if you are using UV light that kills germs, none of these will be a problem; you can use it to kill any mold spores that may have been exposed or suspended in the air during the remediation.

    You should make use of UV light to kill mold because it can do the work much faster than other methods. There are tons of methods you can think of when you want to control the mold in your home or office, but none can do it more rapidly than UV light. Besides being efficient, UV light is the most effective method of killing mold too. It can eradicate up to ninety-nine percent of the mold cells in your home or office. These are the advantages of using UV light that kills mold for remediation.

    The Beginner’s Guide to

    Case Study: My Experience With

  • 5 Key Takeaways on the Road to Dominating

    Comments Off on 5 Key Takeaways on the Road to Dominating
    June 26, 2020 /  Health & Fitness

    Essential Tips That Can Help You Hire the Right Transmission Service Company

    You have probably been searching for a transmission service company and it feels like you are just not succeeding at knowing who you ought to hire and who you should ignore. Just knowing which company can deliver is not that easy. There are a number of factors that you must consider if you are going to get it right. Hiring the right company demands that you think about the following things.

    Services Being Offered
    If you are going to hire a transmission services company, you need to make sure that they provide the kind of services you are searching for. Take your time to go through the company’s website. Do they have a list of services that they offer? If they do, confirm that they can provide the kind of service that you are searching for.

    Training and Expertise
    Whenever you start planning on using your money to hire certain services, it is important that you get the job done by experts. The right kind of training creates all the difference. You will always find that the best service providers go through training because they understand how important it is for them to be the best.

    Quality Has to be Guaranteed
    The third important factor is ensuring that you get quality services. You can only say that the job has been done right if at the end of everything you can look at the end results and feel satisfied. Some people are so good at claiming that they can offer the best services only for them to do a terrible job. You need to be cautious because if you have not confirmed that the quality is good, you will end up with a lot of regrets.

    How Much Are They Charging?
    Once you confirm quality, you move on to find out about the prices. It is good to find a service provider whose charges you can afford. In case the cost is a little high but the quality of services is amazing, then it is worth you taking a little longer to save up some more.

    Ask About Any After-Sale Services
    Not all companies offer after-sale services. However, a couple of them do not just leave their clients after doing the job. Some of the best companies often have an after-sale service arrangement. This kind of arrangement is often meant to attract more clients. Additionally, it is also meant to keep the ones that have already visited the offices to continue being loyal. Make inquiries about these types of services whenever you can. Make sure that you are not missing out on great support from the company you have hired.

    Find Testimonials and Listen
    The last factor that you need to consider so what people are saying on testimonials. Are the testimonials positive? The best companies are the ones that have multiple people willing to vouch for them. It should also be the most recommended service provider. Positive testimonials can reaffirm you.

    All these factors are meant to guide you. Paying attention to them can help you make a decision that is definitely worth it.

    5 Uses For

    The 10 Commandments of And How Learn More

  • Why No One Talks About Anymore

    Comments Off on Why No One Talks About Anymore
    June 26, 2020 /  Pets & Animals

    Looking for PCB Design Companies: What a Client Must Know

    If you belong to the business industry, you will really be using machines to speed transactions. Hence, you need printed circuit boards. The circuit boards must really function according to your desire because you want to be sure that all transactions regarding your business may it be sales or marketing shall prosper. You need to find a PCB design company to develop a product for you. What you need to do is to search further because finding a company from a pool of choices is really complicated.

    If you want guidance, you need to speak with friends. Be sure that those friends have ideas about PCB design and the companies that provide the circuit boards. They would surely tell you how important those designs in business knowing that they have increased their sales and kept the loyalty of their clients because of their speedy transactions. They will recommend some names of companies that provide those projects. What you need to do is to get the names right away and search for their individual backgrounds. There are a lot of companies being reviewed online. You need to choose an authentic review provider to know more about PCB design companies.

    For sure, you will find out that the companies have their fair share of positive comments and suggestions for improvement. You need to read well to identify the one that has the most number of positive reviews and referrals. Still, you do not rely on your judgment solely on the number of referrals and positive reviews. You need to set the standards because it allows you to know the depth of the company. You also want to know if they can serve you according to your demands and not the satisfaction of other clients.

    The first mechanic that you must consider is longevity. If the company has been providing projects to different institutions since decades ago, you need not question their reputation. It goes with the fact that the company has hired the best creators and designers and trained them to meet the needs of the clients. Aside from that, you also want to know if they are flexible since you have your own needs for the company. They need to develop a PCB design that would function according to your own operation. If they can assure you that, then they must be the right company for you.

    It is also essential to consider online connectivity during the process of assessment. You need to visit their official business website and see all the things that they offer. If the website provides you the background and services in detail, you would love to understand what more they could offer. They would show to you their services under PCB design. Aside from that, they will also give you a briefing about the component information system. You would also love to learn more about their translation services. If you want to speak to their representative, you can ask for online consulting. You can also take advantage of their engineering, manufacturing, and assembling services. You would be hooked to get their services once you learn that they are affordable.

    Finding Ways To Keep Up With

    Doing The Right Way

  • Learning The Secrets About

    Comments Off on Learning The Secrets About
    June 26, 2020 /  Internet Services

    The Benefits of Adding ATM Machine to your Store

    Customers today actually see ATM’s as a necessity and not only for convenience. The cash dispensing ATMs in fact has become one of the fastest-growing and also most requested services today. Before, it was only banks that operated the lease line ATM’s. However, with the introduction of a low-cost dial-up ATM, the owners of high traffic locations now became able to capitalize on the benefits of owning an ATM on site. Some of the benefits that you could acquire from ATM machines are as follows:

    Quality Customer Service

    Convenience is something that most people desire. ATM’s in fact now became one of the most used services in convenience stores. People actually have used ATM’s more often compared to other convenience services. In the last few years, ATM usages in fact have grown a lot than the cheque cashing services and a whole lot more than money orders.

    Gives Increased Register Receipts

    The location is also a factor of increased consumer spending. Most money that’s made with an ATM is being reflected with your daily register receipts and having a good sales increase. The ATM users also withdraw a good average for every transaction which will result in more percentage of cash withdrawn that’s spent on-site and 20% more than if they don’t have the cash. The on-screen advertising and receipt couponing help to increase collateral sales. Through offering a valuable service, you are going to have a significant advantage over the competition.

    Gives Increased Foot Traffic

    Having an ATM in your store helps to increase foot traffic. Potential customers also pass by in getting cash from other locations and may not find the way back on spending this in the stores. Customers nowadays also choose merchants with ATM’s for the purpose of convenience and security in completing the transaction inside the location. The consumers also modify buying patterns in combining banking and shopping.

    Fewer Chances of Credit Cards

    There are some credit card users who actually prefer to do payments in cash when given the opportunity. The customer switchovers will be able to help you save as well and you will be earning good revenue. The cash eliminates the risk of cheque acceptance on the cost of cheque guard services. The replacement of cheque or credit card transactions with cash helps to reduce checkout time that results in satisfied customers and also on lower labor costs.

    Surcharge Revenues

    Most people actually use ATMs. The ATM owners and the vault cash provider will also receive surcharge revenues. The overall strategy needs to be in getting different potential customers in using the machines. It is actually better than you have more people a month who will use your ATM even just for a dollar for every transaction than having a lot of people who prefer using credit cards. The machine also gives you more customers every month and puts thousands of dollars in their spending hands.

    Offer Tax Benefits

    The monthly lease payments could be deducted as an operating expense. Leasing will be able to help you in avoiding the Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT) through reducing the AMT tax liability.

    Doing The Right Way

    A Simple Plan For Researching

  • The 10 Best Resources For

    Comments Off on The 10 Best Resources For
    June 26, 2020 /  Home Products & Services

    Choosing Professional Plastic Surgeon Products

    Several types should be involved when settling on the correct professional plastic surgery services used in enhancing the personal confidence business. The material is used by the beauty surgeons who carry out several processes on the bodies of the individuals. The machine is also applied in hospitals, private clinics to carry out artistic operations. The facility is implemented on the facial toning, dermal fillers, and the correction of the skin pigmentation, and enhancing the body features should be best. The plastic surgery skill is used in the revision of the wrinkles, lines, and assists in the skin rejuvenation. The practices are involved in boosting individual confidence. Several types are applied when searching for the right equipment for commercial use.

    Start from the suppliers close to your location. Get recommendations from the family and friends who might have used the facility earlier. You will get to the office or the warehouse after confirming the sale of the facility from the internet. The advantages of choosing online sales are that they come in various supplies. You will ensure that you pick the products in bulk, and at a wholesale rate. The online sellers will gain better profit on the purchase of the products that provide the skin rejuvenates and glows more.

    When purchasing the product, assure that it will get to you on time. It will ensure that you in the position of serving the customers adequately. Assure that the delivery will not delay for active customer service. You will have to keep a promise of the quality products delivered to the clients. Check on the price quotation. Before clicking on the send money sections, you will assure that the kind of products has a guaranteed price. The cost of the product will go at an affordable cost.

    Buying online products might not be simple at times. Get recommendations about the trusted site before clicking on the information. Choosing the site will assure that you have the correct details on the electro stimulation. The skin analyzers used in the business should operate in the right way. The information indicated on the site should offer information on the specs of each facility. Some trusted sites will provide a warranty duration for the products sold. All the machines are reviewed before selling them. The firm aims to fulfill the client’s demands. The firms will assure that the clients are happy with the products supplied. Reviewing on the esthetic equipment companies before buying is necessary when shopping. Understand the steps involved in the use of a product earlier.

    Getting the plastic surgery on your body part is a way of boosting confidence. You will encounter more positive comments and reviews. You will have the people close to your regarding you differently when you get the best practice carried out on your skin. There will be a need to make use of the best procedure that will take care of the body parts and skin and assure you have the best. It is important to consider the services from the known professional who has been in the firm for the longest period of time.

    Questions About You Must Know the Answers To

    What Do You Know About

  • Overwhelmed by the Complexity of ? This May Help

    Comments Off on Overwhelmed by the Complexity of ? This May Help
    June 26, 2020 /  Personal Product & Services

    Factors to Consider When Choosing a Clinical Research Centre

    Research is one of the ways of developing a solution to long-lasting problems. You can decide to research in the medical sector and gain professional experience in the development of healthcare solutions. It will help you broaden your evidence based on medical practices that will help thousands of patients. One of the places where you can study clinical practices is a clinical research center. They have advanced technology and specialization in medicine that will help you learn faster. The clinical research center will allow you to develop safety standards and treatment effects that can be used by the community. However, there are various clinical research centers that you will find in the medical sector; hence you should have tips that will help you select a perfect one. The document has tips that will help you select an ideal clinical research center.

    The first tip that should come to mind is the credentials of the courses offered at the clinical research center. The first step is to identify the current studies offered at the clinical research center. Then look if the clinical research center is allowed to offer that kind of course. It will help you to build confidence in the credibility, of course, you will undertake. It will be effective to verify if the clinical research center is certified by the regulating body to offer the same course. Some of these courses will require some of the advanced technologies and machines that only certified clinical research centers could offer. Look at the duration that the certified clinical research center has taken in offering the same course. Consider checking the experience of the trainee from the same clinical research center as they offer their services.

    The second aspect that you should consider is the location of the clinical research center. There are several courses from the clinical research center that you can learn online while others you can learn within the premises. Consider looking if the clinical research center is situated at a specific location to put your ideas into practice. Look at the clinical research center located within your region if you prefer classroom learning to help you save time. It will still help you to register for the online classes at the same time. You will have a privilege to benefit from both online and class learning from the clinical research center and save money at the same time.

    The last aspect that you should consider is the fee charged for the courses at the clinical research center. When choosing a clinical research center, you should set aside the cost of studying the same program. It will be ideal to consider a clinical research center with affordable courses either from the online platform or institution-based. It will help you to prevent overspending on the program. Look if the clinical research center has a sponsorship program within the facility to assist in cost-saving as you learn. You can look at other charges, such as transportation and accommodation if they are all catered for within the fee program.

    5 Key Takeaways on the Road to Dominating

    The Ultimate Guide to

  • What Research About Can Teach You

    Comments Off on What Research About Can Teach You
    June 26, 2020 /  Relationships

    Things to Consider when Hiring a Roofer

    A roofer is a professional who specializes in repairing, installing and also remodeling of the roofs. He is a specialist or rather a professional who works on residential and commercial buildings A roofer can see the damaged roof and have it fixed as this is what he is specialized in. Keep reading and see what you need to consider when hiring a roofer.

    Are you in need of a qualified roofer who can work on your roofs in a professional way, then see the tips below and choose wisely. Well, a good roofing contractor should have enough experience; this means that he must be able to know what roofing services are about. When you hire an experienced roofing contractor you sure will find some clean job as they always know what they are supposed to do. It is important to know the type of roofing contractor you are about to hire of which he must be good in his previous works.

    It is also advisable to hire a licensed roofing contractor as this is someone who is committed and can be trusted to handle the job. When a licensed contractor is working on your project there will be contentment and trust as this is a straight forward person. When choosing a roofing contractor to consider if he is certified, this means that a certified roofer is the best to work with under all cost. Certification means that the roofer has been approved to be eligible to work as one of the contractors in this sector.

    A good roofer should be able to answer everything concerning the roofing services, mark you, customers will always have something to ask for. It is a good sign when a roofer is able to answer all roofing queries perfectly as this way he will add more marks towards his customers. A good roofer listens, this is because there will always be customers who want to explain themselves about the roofing project. When a roofer listens he will be able to understand what the customer needs and through that, he will be able to deliver the best. When choosing a roofer consider how confident he is, mark you this is one of the many ways to know that he can deliver the best.

    A roofer should be able to identify or advise the right roofing materials in the market. It is good to choose a roofer that is affordable, this means that he must not be too expensive. If possible you should interview several roofers prior to hiring as this is the only way to come up with the right one. You can easily distinguish qualified and unqualified roofers by following the above tips.

    Why No One Talks About Anymore

    Questions About You Must Know the Answers To

  • The Evolution of Direct3D

    Comments Off on The Evolution of Direct3D
    June 26, 2020 /  Computer Technology, Programming

    * UPDATE: Be sure to read the comment thread at the end of this blog, the discussion got interesting.

    It’s been many years since I worked on Direct3D and over the years the technology has evolved Dramatically. Modern GPU hardware has changed tremendously over the years Achieving processing power and capabilities way beyond anything I dreamed of having access to in my lifetime. The evolution of the modern GPU is the result of many fascinating market forces but the one I know best and find most interesting was the influence that Direct3D had on the new generation GPU’s that support Welcome to Thunderbird processing cores, billions of transistors more than the host CPU and are many times faster at most applications. I’ve told a lot of funny stories about how political and Direct3D was created but I would like to document some of the history of how the Direct3D architecture came about and the architecture that had profound influence on modern consumer GPU’s.

    Published here with this article is the original documentation for Direct3D DirectX 2 when it was first Introduced in 1995. Contained in this document is an architecture vision for 3D hardware acceleration that was largely responsible for shaping the modern GPU into the incredibly powerful, increasingly ubiquitous consumer general purpose supercomputers we see today.

    D3DOVER
    The reason I got into computer graphics was NOT an interest in gaming, it was an interest in computational simulation of physics. I Studied 3D at Siggraph conferences in the late 1980’s Because I wanted to understand how to approach simulating quantum mechanics, chemistry and biological systems computationally. Simulating light interactions with materials was all the rage at Siggraph back then so I learned 3D. Understanding light 3D mathematics and physics made me a graphics and color expert roomates got me a career in the publishing industry early on creating PostScript RIP’s (Raster Image Processors). I worked with a team of engineers in Cambridge England creating software solutions for printing color graphics screened before the invention of continuous tone printing. That expertise got me recruited by Microsoft in the early 1990’s to re-design the Windows 95 and Windows NT print architecture to be more competitive with Apple’s superior capabilities at that time. My career came full circle back to 3D when, an initiative I started with a few friends to re-design the Windows graphics and media architecture (DirectX) to support real-time gaming and video applications, resulted in gaming becoming hugely strategic to Microsoft. Sony Introduced in a consumer 3D game console (the Playstation 1) and being responsible for DirectX it was incumbent on us to find a 3D solution for Windows as well.

    For me, the challenge in formulating a strategy for consumer 3D gaming for Microsoft was an economic one. What approach to consumer 3D Microsoft should take to create a vibrant competitive market for consumer 3D hardware that was both affordable to consumers AND future proof? The complexity of realistically simulating 3D graphics in real time was so far beyond our capabilities in that era that there was NO hope of choosing a solution that was anything short of an ugly hack that would produce “good enough” for 3D games while being very far removed from the ideal solutions mathematically we had implemented a little hope of seeing in the real-world during our careers.

    Up until that point only commercial solutions for 3D hardware were for CAD (Computer Aided Design) applications. These solutions worked fine for people who could afford hundred thousand dollars work stations. Although the OpenGL API was the only “standard” for 3D API’s that the market had, it had not been designed with video game applications in mind. For example, texture mapping, an essential technique for producing realistic graphics was not a priority for CAD models roomates needed to be functional, not look cool. Rich dynamic lighting was also important to games but not as important to CAD applications. High precision was far more important to CAD applications than gaming. Most importantly OpenGL was not designed for highly interactive real-time graphics that used off-screen video page buffering to avoid tearing artifacts during rendering. It was not that the OpenGL API could not be adapted to handle these features for gaming, simply that it’s actual market implementation on expensive workstations did not suggest any elegant path to a $ 200 consumer gaming cards.

    TRPS15In the early 1990’s computer RAM was very expensive, as such, early 3D consumer hardware designs optimized for minimal RAM requirements. The Sony Playstation 1 optimized for this problem by using a 3D hardware solution that did not rely on a memory intensive the data structure called a Z-buffer, instead they used a polygon level sorting algorithm that produced ugly intersections between moving joints. The “Painters Algorithm” approach to 3D was very fast and required little RAM. It was an ugly but pragmatic approach for gaming that would have been utterly unacceptable for CAD applications.

    In formulating the architecture for Direct3D we were faced with difficult choices Similar enumerable. We wanted the Windows graphics leading vendors of the time; ATI, Cirrus, Trident, S3, Matrox and many others to be Able to Compete with one another for rapid innovation in 3D hardware market without creating utter chaos. The technical solution that Microsoft’s OpenGL team espoused via Michael Abrash was a driver called 3DDDI models (3D Device Driver Interface). 3DDDI was a very simple model of a flat driver that just supported the hardware acceleration of 3D rasterization. The complex mathematics associated with transforming and lighting a 3D scene were left to the CPU. 3DDDI used “capability bits” to specify additional hardware rendering features (like filtering) that consumer graphics card makers could optionally implement. The problem with 3DDDI was that it invited problems for game developers out of the gate. There were so many cap-bits every game that would either have to support an innumerable number of feature combinations unspecified hardware to take advantage of every possible way that hardware vendors might choose to design their chips producing an untestable number of possible hardware configurations and a consumer huge amount of redundant art assets that the games would not have to lug around to look good on any given device OR games would revert to using a simple set of common 3D features supported by everyone and there would be NO competitive advantage for companies to support new hardware 3D capabilities that did not have instant market penetration. The OpenGL crowd at Microsoft did not see this as a big problem in their world Because everyone just bought a $ 100,000 workstation that supported everything they needed.

    The realization that we could not get what we needed from the OpenGL team was one of the primary could be better we Decided to create a NEW 3D API just for gaming. It had nothing to do with the API, but with the driver architecture underneath Because we needed to create a competitive market that did not result in chaos. In this respect the Direct3D API was not an alternative to the OpenGL API, it was a driver API designed for the sole economic purpose of creating a competitive market for 3D consumer hardware. In other words, the Direct3D API was not shaped by “technical” requirements so much as economic ones. In this respect the Direct3D API was revolutionary in several interesting ways that had nothing to do with the API itself but rather the driver architecture it would rely on.

    When we Decided to acquire a 3D team to build with Direct3D I was chartered surveying the market for candidate companies with the right expertise to help us build the API we needed. As I have previously recounted we looked at Epic Games (creators of the Unreal engine), Criterion (later acquired by EA), Argonaut and finally Rendermorphics. We chose Rendermorphics (based in London) Because of the large number of 3D quality engineers and the company employed Because The founder, Servan Kiondijian, had a very clear vision of how consumer 3D drivers should be designed for maximum future compatibility and innovation. The first implementation of the Direct3D API was rudimentary but quickly intervening evolved towards something with much greater future potential.

    D3DOVER lhanded
    Whoops!

    My principal memory from that period was a meeting in roomates I, as the resident expert on the DirectX 3D team, was asked to choose a handedness for the Direct3D API. I chose a left handed coordinate system, in part out of personal preference. I remember it now Only because it was an arbitrary choice that by the caused no end of grief for years afterwards as all other graphics authoring tools Adopted the right handed coordinate system to the OpenGL standard. At the time nobody knew or believed that a CAD tool like Autodesk would evolve up to become the standard tool for authoring game graphics. Microsoft had acquired Softimage with the intention of displacing the Autodesk and Maya anyway. Whoops …

    The early Direct3D HAL (Hardware Abstraction Layer) was designed in an interesting way. It was structured vertically into three stages.

    DX 2 HAL

    The highest was the most abstract layer transformation layer, the middle layer was dedicated to lighting calculations and the bottom layer was for rasterization of the finally transformed and lit polygons into depth sorted pixels. The idea behind this vertical structure driver was to provide a relatively rigid feature path for hardware vendors to innovate along. They could differentiate their products from one another by designing hardware that accelerated increasingly higher layers of the 3D pipeline resulting in greater performance and realism without incompatibilities or a sprawling matrix of configurations for games to test against art or requiring redundant assets. Since the Direct3D API created by Rendermorphics Provided a “pretty fast” implementation software for any functionality not accelerated by the hardware, game developers could focus on the Direct3D API without worrying about myriad permutations of incompatible hardware 3D capabilities. At least that was the theory. Unfortunately like the 3DDDI driver specification, Direct3D still included capability bits designed to enable hardware features that were not part of the vertical acceleration path. Although I actively objected to the tendency of Direct3D capability to accumulate bits, the team felt extraordinary competitive pressure from Microsoft’s own OpenGL group and from the hardware vendors to support them.

    The hardware companies, seeking a competitive advantage for their own products, would threaten to support and promote OpenGL to game developers Because The OpenGL driver bits capability supported models that enabled them to create features for their hardware that nobody else supported. It was common (and still is) for the hardware OEM’s to pay game developers to adopt features of their hardware unique to their products but incompatible with the installed base of gaming hardware, forcing consumers to constantly upgrade their graphics card to play the latest PC games . Game developers alternately hated capability bits Because of their complexity and incompatibilities but wanted to take the marketing dollars from the hardware OEM’s to support “non-standard” 3D features.

    Overall I viewed this dynamic as destructive to a healthy PC gaming economy and advocated resisting the trend OpenGL Regardless of what the people wanted or OEM’s. I believed that creating a consistent stable consumer market for PC games was more important than appeasing the hardware OEM’s. As such as I was a strong advocate of the relatively rigid vertical Direct3D pipeline and a proponent of introducing only API features that we expected up to become universal over time. I freely confess that this view implied significant constraints on innovation in other areas and a placed a high burden of market prescience on the Direct3D team.

    The result, in my estimation, was pretty good. The Direct3D fixed function pipeline, as it was known, produced a very rich and growing PC gaming market with many healthy competitors through to DirectX 7.0 and the early 2000’s. The PC gaming market boomed and grew to be the largest gaming market on Earth. It also resulted in a very interesting change in the GPU hardware architecture over time.

    Had the Direct3D HAL has been a flat driver with just the model for rasterization capability bits as the OpenGL team at Microsoft had advocated, 3D hardware makers would have competed by accelerating just the bottom layer of the 3D rendering pipeline and adding differentiating features to their hardware capability via bits that were incompatible with their competitors. The result of introducing the vertical layered architecture THING that was 3D hardware vendors were all encouraged to add features to their GPU’s more consistent with the general purpose CPU architectures, namely very fast floating point operations, in a consistent way. Thus consumer GPU’s evolved over the years to increasingly resemble general purpose CPU’s … with one major difference. Because the 3D fixed function pipeline was rigid, the Direct3D architecture afforded very little opportunity for code branching frequent as CPU’s are designed to optimize for. Achieved their GPU’s amazing performance and parallelism in part by being free to assume that little or no branching code would ever occur inside a Direct3D graphics pipeline. Thus instead of evolving one giant monolithic core CPU that has massive numbers of transistors dedicated to efficient branch prediction has as an Intel CPU, GPU has a Direct3D Hundreds to Welcome to Thunderbird simple CPU cores like that have no branch prediction. They can chew through a calculation at incredible speed confident in the knowledge that they will not be interrupted by code branching or random memory accesses to slow them down.

    DirectX 7.0 up through the underlying parallelism of the GPU was hidden from the game. As far as the game was concerned some hardware was just faster than other hardware but the game should not have to worry about how or why. The early DirectX fixed function pipeline architecture had done a brilliant job of enabling dozens of Disparate competing hardware vendors to all take different approaches to Achieving superior cost and performance in consumer 3D without making a total mess of the PC gaming market for the game developers and consumers . It was not pretty and was not entirely executed with flawless precision but it worked well enough to create an extremely vibrant PC gaming market through to the early 2000’s.

    Before I move on to discussing more modern evolution Direct3D, I would like to highlight a few other important ideas that influenced architecture in early modern Direct3D GPU’s. Recalling that in the early to mid 1990’s was relatively expensive RAM there was a lot of emphasis on consumer 3D techniques that conserved on RAM usage. The Talisman architecture roomates I have told many (well-deserved) derogatory stories about was highly influenced by this observation.

    Talsiman
    Search this blog for tags “Talisman” and “OpenGL” for many stories about the internal political battles over these technologies within Microsoft

    Talisman relied on a grab bag of graphics “tricks” to minimize GPU RAM usage that were not very generalized. The Direct3D team, Rendermorphics Heavily influenced by the founders had made a difficult choice in philosophical approach to creating a mass market for consumer 3D graphics. We had Decided to go with a more general purpose Simpler approach to 3D that relied on a very memory intensive a data structure called a Z-buffer to Achieve great looking results. Rendermorphics had managed to Achieve very good 3D performance in pure software with a software Z-buffer in the engine Rendermorphics roomates had given us the confidence to take the bet to go with a more general purpose 3D Simpler API and driver models and trust that the hardware RAM market and prices would eventually catch up. Note however that at the time we were designing Direct3D that we did not know about the Microsoft Research Groups “secret” Talisman project, nor did they expect that a small group of evangelists would cook up a new 3D API standard for gaming and launch it before their own wacky initiative could be deployed. In short one of the big bets that Direct3D made was that the simplicity and elegance of Z-buffers to game development were worth the risk that consumer 3D hardware would struggle to affordably support them early on.

    Despite the big bet on Z-buffer support we were intimately aware of two major limitations of the consumer PC architecture that needed to be addressed. The first was that the PC bus was generally very slow and second it was much slower to copy the data from a graphics card than it was to copy the data to a graphics card. What that generally meant was that our API design had to growing niche to send the data in the largest most compact packages possible up to the GPU for processing and absolutely minimize any need to copy the data back from the GPU for further processing on the CPU. This generally meant that the Direct3D API was optimized to package the data up and send it on a one-way trip. This was of course an unfortunate constraint Because there were many brilliant 3D effects that could be best accomplished by mixing the CPU’s branch prediction efficient and robust floating point support with the GPU’s parallel rendering incredible performance.

    One of the fascinating Consequences of that constraint was that it forced the GPU’s up to become even more general purpose to compensate for the inability to share the data with the CPU efficiently. This was possibly the opposite of what Intel intended to happen with its limited bus performance, Because Intel was threatened by the idea that the auxiliary would offload more processing cards from their work thereby reducing the CPU’s Intel CPU’s value and central role to PC computing. It was reasonably believed at that time that Intel Deliberately dragged their feet on improving PC performance to deterministic bus a market for alternatives to their CPU’s for consumer media processing applications. Earlier Blogs from my recall that the main REASON for creating DirectX was to Prevent Intel from trying to virtualize all the Windows Media support on the CPU. Intel had Adopted a PC bus architecture that enabled extremely fast access to system RAM shared by auxiliary devices, it is less Likely GPU’s that would have evolved the relatively rich set of branching and floating point operations they support today.

    To Overcome the fairly stringent performance limitations of the PC bus a great deal of thought was put into techniques for compressing and streamlining DirectX assets being sent to the GPU performance to minimize bus bandwidth limitations and the need for round trips from the GPU back to the CPU . The early need for the rigid 3D pipeline had Consequences interesting later on when we Began to explore assets streaming 3D over the Internet via modems.

    We Recognized early on that support for compressed texture maps would Dramatically improve bus performance and reduce the amount of onboard RAM consumer GPU’s needed, the problem was that no standards Existed for 3D texture formats at the time and knowing how fast image compression technologies were evolving at the time I was loathe to impose a Microsoft specified one “prematurely” on the industry. To Overcome this problem we came up with the idea of ​​”blind compression formats”. The idea, roomates I believe was captured in one of the many DirectX patents that we filed, had the idea that a GPU could encode and decode image textures in an unspecified format but that the DirectX API’s would allow the application to read and write from them as though they were always raw bitmaps. The Direct3D driver would encode and decode the image data is as Necessary under the hood without the application needing to know about how it was actually being encoded on the hardware.

    By 1998 3D chip makers had begun to devise good quality 3D texture formats by DirectX 6.0 such that we were Able to license one of them (from S3) for inclusion with Direct3D.

    http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/news/press/1998/mar98/s3pr.aspx

    DirectX 6.0 was actually the first version of DirectX that was included in a consumer OS release (Windows 98). Until that time, DirectX was actually just a family of libraries that were shipped by the Windows games that used them. DirectX was not actually a Windows API until five generations after its first release.

    DirectX 7.0 was the last generation of DirectX that relied on the fixed function pipeline we had laid out in DirectX 2.0 with the first introduction of the Direct3D API. This was a very interesting transition period for Direct3D for several could be better;

    1) The original founders DirectX team had all moved on,

    2) Microsoft’s internal Talisman and could be better for supporting OpenGL had all passed

    3) Microsoft had brought the game industry veterans like Seamus Blackley, Kevin Bacchus, Stuart Moulder and others into the company in senior roles.

    4) Become a Gaming had a strategic focus for the company

    DirectX 8.0 marked a fascinating transition for Direct3D Because with the death of Talisman and the loss of strategic interest in OpenGL 3D support many of the people from these groups came to work on Direct3D. Talisman, OpenGL and game industry veterans all came together to work on Direct3D 8.0. The result was very interesting. Looking back I freely concede that I would not have made the same set of choices that this group made for DirectX 8.0 in chi but it seems to me that everything worked out for the best anyway.

    Direct3D 8.0 was influenced in several interesting ways by the market forces of the late 20th century. Microsoft largely unified against OpenGL and found itself competing with the Kronos Group standards committee to advance faster than OpenGL Direct3D. With the death of SGI, control of the OpenGL standard fell into the hands of the 3D hardware OEM’s who of course wanted to use the standard to enable them to create differentiating hardware features from their competitors and to force Microsoft to support 3D features they wanted to promote. The result was the Direct3D and OpenGL Became much more complex and they tended to converge during this period. There was a stagnation in 3D feature adoption by game developers from DirectX 8.0 to DirectX 11.0 through as a result of these changes. Became creating game engines so complex that the market also converged around a few leading search providers Including Epic’s Unreal Engine and the Quake engine from id software.

    Had I been working on Direct3D at the time I would have stridently resisted letting the 3D chip lead Microsoft OEM’s around by the nose chasing OpenGL features instead of focusing on enabling game developers and a consistent quality consumer experience. I would have opposed introducing shader support in favor of trying to keep the Direct3D driver layer as vertically integrated as possible to Ensure conformity among hardware vendors feature. I also would have strongly opposed abandoning DirectDraw support as was done in Direct3D 8.0. The 3D guys got out of control and Decided that nobody should need pure 2D API’s once developers Adopted 3D, failing to recognize that simple 2D API’s enabled a tremendous range of features and ease of programming that the majority of developers who were not 3D geniuses could Easily understand and use. Forcing the market to learn 3D Dramatically constrained the set of people with the expertise to adopt it. Microsoft later discovered the error in this decision and re-Introduced DirectDraw as the Direct2D API. Basically letting the Direct3D 8.0 3D design geniuses made it brilliant, powerful and useless to average developers.

    At the time that the DirectX 8.0 was being made I was starting my first company WildTangent Inc.. and Ceased to be closely INVOLVED with what was going on with DirectX features, however years later I was Able to get back to my roots and 3D took the time to learn Direct3D programming in DirectX 11.1. Looking back it’s interesting to see how the major architectural changes that were made in DirectX 8 resulted in the massively convoluted and nearly incomprehensible Direct3D API we see today. Remember the 3 stage pipeline DirectX 2 that separated Transformation, lighting and rendering pipeline into three basic stages? Here is a diagram of the modern DirectX 11.1 3D pipeline.

    DX 11 Pipeline

    Yes, it grew to 9 stages and 13 stages when arguably some of the optional sub-stages, like the compute shader, are included. Speaking as somebody with an extremely lengthy background in very low-level 3D graphics programming and I’m Embarrassed to confess that I struggled mightily to learn programming Direct3D 11.1. Become The API had very nearly incomprehensible and unlearnable. I have no idea how somebody without my extensive background in 3D and graphics could ever begin to learn how to program a modern 3D pipeline. As amazingly powerful and featureful as this pipeline is, it is also damn near unusable by any but a handful of the most antiquated brightest minds in 3D graphics. In the course of catching up on my Direct3D I found myself simultaneously in awe of the astounding power of modern GPU’s and where they were going and in shocked disgust at the absolute mess the 3D pipeline had Become. It was as though the Direct3D API had Become a dumping ground for 3D features that every OEM DEMANDED had over the years.

    Had I not enjoyed the benefit of the decade long break from Direct3D involvement Undoubtedly I would have a long history of bitter blogs written about what a mess my predecessors had made of a great and elegant vision for the consumer 3D graphics. Weirdly, however, leaping forward in time to the present day, I am forced to admit that I’m not sure it was such a bad thing after all. The result of stagnation gaming on the PC as a result of the mess Microsoft and the OEMs made of the Direct3D API was a successful XBOX. Having a massively fragmented 3D API is not such a problem if there is only one hardware configuration to support game developers have, as is the case with a game console. Direct3D shader 8.0 support with early primitive was the basis for the first Xbox’s graphics API. For the first selected Microsoft’s XBOX NVIDIA NVIDIA chip giving a huge advantage in the 3D PC chip market. DirectX 9.0, with more advanced shader support, was the basis for the XBOX 360, Microsoft roomates selected for ATI to provide the 3D chip, AMD this time handing a huge advantage in the PC graphics market. In a sense the OEM’s had screwed Themselves. By successfully Influencing Microsoft and the OpenGL standards groups to adopt highly convoluted graphics pipelines to support all of their feature sets, they had forced Themselves to generalize their GPU architectures and the 3D chip market consolidated around a 3D chip architecture … whatever Microsoft selected for its consoles.

    The net result was that the retail PC game market largely died. It was simply too costly, too insecure and too unstable a platform for publishing high production value games on any longer, with the partial exception of MMOG’s. Microsoft and the OEM’s had conspired together to kill the proverbial golden goose. No biggie for Microsoft as they were happy to gain complete control of the former PC gaming business by virtue of controlling the XBOX.

    From the standpoint of the early DirectX vision, I would have said that this outcome was a foolish, shortsighted disaster. Microsoft had maintained a little discipline and strategic focus on the Direct3D API they could have ensured that there were NO other consoles in existence in a single generation by using the XBOX XBOX to Strengthen the PC gaming market rather than inadvertently destroying it. While Microsoft congratulates itself for the first successful U.S. launch of the console, I would count all the gaming dollars collected by Sony, Nintendo and mobile gaming platforms over the years that might have remained on Microsoft platforms controlled Microsoft had maintained a cohesive strategy across media platforms. I say all of this from a past tense perspective Because, today, I’m not so sure that I’m really all that unhappy with the result.

    The new generation of consoles from Sony AND Microsoft have Reverted to a PC architecture! The next generation GPU’s are massively parallel, general-purpose processors with intimate access to the shared memory with the CPU. In fact, the GPU architecture Became so generalized that a new pipeline stage was added in DirectX 11 DirectCompute called that simply allowed the CPU to bypass the entire convoluted Direct3D graphics pipeline in favor of programming the GPU directly. With the introduction of DirectCompute the promise of simple 3D programming returned in an unexpected form. Modern GPU’s have Become so powerful and flexible that the possibility of writing cross 3D GPU engines directly for the GPU without making any use of the traditional 3D pipeline is an increasingly practical and appealing programming option. From my perspective here in the present day, I would anticipate that within a few short generations the need for the traditional Direct3D and OpenGL APIs will vanish in favor of new game engines with much richer and more diverse feature sets that are written entirely in device independent shader languages ​​like Nvidia’s CUDA and Microsoft’s AMP API’s.

    Today, as a 3D physics engine and developer I have never been so excited about GPU programming Because of the sheer power and relative ease of programming directly to the modern GPU without needing to master the enormously convoluted 3D pipelines associated with Direct3D and OpenGL API’s. If I were responsible for Direct3D strategy today I would be advocating dumping the investment in traditional 3D pipeline in favor of Rapidly opening direct access to a rich GPU programming environment. I personally never imagined that my early work on Direct3D, would, within a couple decades, Contribute to the evolution of a new kind of ubiquitous processor that enabled the kind of incredibly realistic and general modeling of light and physics that I had learned in the 1980 ‘s but never believed I would see computers powerful enough to models in real-time during my active career.

    Tags: , , , ,

  • Finding Parallels Between and Life

    Comments Off on Finding Parallels Between and Life
    June 25, 2020 /  Sports & Athletics

    Merits of Buying Peptides through the Internet

    Those who wish to the best peptide for their laboratories must be keen to acquire them. Most people would want to get such online is this is the primary means used in the sale and purchases in several areas. If you depend on the internet for such, you are well off as compared to the ones who rely on the typical outlets. They do this to get the many advantages associated with the online purchases of the products. In the following paragraphs, you can read some of the reasons why you should acquire peptide from online retailers.

    Buying peptides from online stores can ensure that you are comfortable most of the time. With the emphasis on the internet you do not have to be in a specific place for the services. This takes care of those who are too busy to deal with the purchases at the moment. They relieve you from going to the products saving so much time in the process. They also ensure you can acquire the peptides all times as they are always open. You must be very keen to the conventional outlets open as they do not operate all the times. Buying from online retailers can also ensure you get the products when taking care of other activities because you do not require so much power.

    You are sure of coming across of every type of peptides in the online shops. The quality of the products is among some of the things that lead to differences among the products. This means you must take so much time comparing them if you’re going to buy the best ones. With the online sellers, comparisons does not take so much time as you can open multiple tabs for this activity. However, accomplishing the same in the conventional outlets is not as easy as you cannot bring all the products to one place.

    It is less expensive to acquire peptides through the internet. It is the best option for those who have depleted their money but still want to get the peptides. They can ship the peptides to your homes which can save you so much. At the same time, they ask for lower amounts due to the low overhead costs they incur. On the other hand, the amounts rises in the typical outlets as they spend much in running their activities. Since the producers reward them with discounts for acquiring the products in large numbers, they end up paying less. They also give their customers who get the products in bulk discounts.

    To conclude, all the benefits described above can be enjoyed by looking for peptides From online shops.

    How to Achieve Maximum Success with

    A Quick Overlook of – Your Cheatsheet